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Rebellion against your ruler is the last, but most effective, way of dealing with an abusive or incapable ruler.
There are two ways to work on a change of government. Opposition is a tame, "not actively overthrowing the government" version, often a preparation for a true Rebellion.
In more detail, the opposition is the group of unhappy nobles in the realm, otherwise referred to as the Underground. It is open for anyone to join or leave as they please, and its only actual function is that it allows the members of the opposition to talk to each other, anonymously. The ruler himself can not join, but he may have his spies in it.
Starting a Rebellion
A rebellion is the actual uprising, an attempt to seize control of the realm and replace the ruler. Any opposition member can start a rebellion at any time, unless there is already one running, or if there are too few people in the underground. The rebel leader will be announced by name to all members of the opposition immediately, and one turn later to the whole realm.
Everyone in the realm (except the ruler) can join the rebellion. However, rebels can not become loyal again. Active rebels can not be kicked out of the realm.
While a rebellion lasts, realm control in all regions of the realm will suffer, as local rebels use the opportunity to stage mini-revolts of their own.
Ending a Rebellion
A rebellion has a limited time (3 days) to overthrow the government. The easiest way is for the ruler to step down. If he does, he loses prestige and honour, and the rebel leader automatically takes his place.
The other way out of a rebellion is to fight it out. Rebel and loyal troops will fight common enemies as before, but if there are no enemies in the region, they will fight each other. If at any time during the rebellion the rebels have at least 50% more combat strength than the loyal troops inside the capital, the palace is stormed and the ruler expelled. He will still lose prestige and honour, but not as much (at least he put up a fight).
If time runs out without a victory for the rebels, the rebellion fails. The rebel leader is automatically banned. The ruler can kick the other rebels, or be gracious with them.